Author Archives: Beregovskykh Artem

Surgical Robots

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Human error has been a big issue in surgeon rooms worldwide. According to statistics in the USA nearly 4,000 patients are injured annually during the surgeries. From 1990 to 2010 there were 9,744 registered court cases against doctors who have conducted the surgery, the plaintiffs were awarded approximately $1.3 billion in damages over the course of this period [2]. To improve the outcomes of the surgeries we can benefit from the usage of AI systems. On one hand, IT systems can assess the surgical execution in over 85% cases and present a detailed evaluation of skills of a given surgeon that helps humans to understand their weak sides and boost their performance [4]. Robots also help young and inexperienced surgeons to improve their results and enhance their development and self-confidence. On the other hand, AI can completely substitute humans in carrying out surgeries. For instance, surgeons are required to inform each patient personally about a possible recovery chance or predicted risks. Sometimes these calculations go way beyond humans’ calculation abilities, but AI will be able to name all of these figures with very definite accuracy [3]. Furthermore, today’s medicine is highly dependent on the da Vinci System that has been used for over two decades, but there are several modern tools tackling the precise surgery process. While conducting the surgery, suturing is believed to be one of the most important parts that decide the successful completion of surgery [4]. Very often due to human fatigue surgeons are failing to deliver the best outcome possible. However, robots today require humans only to enter the parameters like suture size to complete the surgery. Moreover, AI can self-learn while conducting the work in real-time. Surgical robots are supplied with embedded machine learning algorithms that allow them to spectate at surgeon’s actions during a surgery which allows them to find a better and a more accurate way to perform surgery than a human [1]. Computer systems reduce the bureaucracy burden laid on hospital workers. For instance, analytical tools are used for completing the reports, organize and follow the individual curriculum of each patient allowing doctors and nurses to spend more time with their patients resulting in better treatment. This looks to be a very promising solution to reduce the number of fatal instances during surgery. The AI systems in medicine are predicted to grow annually by 10.4%, from the value of $3.9 billion in 2018 to $6.5 billion by 2023 [4]. Although, surgical robots are still being developed and several flaws are being solved in their operational systems. There is a very high chance that AI and robots will substitute human surgeons in the operating room.

 

 

 

Works Cited

 

  1. Robotic Surgery: The Role of AI and Collaborative Robots. (2019, September 7). Retrieved December 17, 2019, from https://www.robotics.org/blog-article.cfm/Robotic-Surgery-The-Role-of-AI-and-Collaborative-Robots/181.
  2. Shocking Surgical Error Statistics Show 4,000 Victims Annually. (2017, February 16). Retrieved December 17, 2019, from https://www.seattlemalpracticelawyers.com/blog/2017/02/shocking-surgical-error-statistics/.
  3. Shugalo, I. (2018, September 18). How Can Machine Learning Improve Surgery? Retrieved December 17, 2019, from https://www.technologynetworks.com/informatics/articles/how-can-machine-learning-improve-surgery-309645.
  4. Taking Surgery to the Next Level with Machine Learning. (2019, September 15). Retrieved December 17, 2019, from https://www.hackernoon.com/taking-surgery-to-the-next-level-with-machine-learning-qj3fo3zg4.

Surtrac – Effective Traffic Management System

Reading Time: 3 minutes

With the growing amount of cars on the roads, the probability of a traffic jam increases significantly. In 2015 it was estimated that there are 1.3 billion vehicles on the public roads by 2040 this figure could go over a 2 billion mark [1]. The current traffic management system is simply not suitable for the number of cars we have today. They lack a component that would allow them to adapt to weather conditions, accidents, jams and other situations on the road [1]. Moreover, most of the present traffic lights rely on timers that tell them when to switch the light back to red or green [1]. Although the construction of modern interchanges has had a small impact on the traffic issue we can use new computer systems, AI specifically, to reduce the number of cars being stuck in a “dead” not-moving jam or remove the congestions completely. In order to, reduce the amount of traffic being stuck, we firstly should get to the core of the problem and understand how many cars are out there on each street, motorway, the direction at which they are going and so on [2]. This results in huge amounts of data that should be carefully analyzed, thankfully, the implementation of video cameras and AI systems will allow us to do that.

 

The Pittsburgh-based “Surtrac” analyzes surrounding at interchanges by using cameras and radars, the data then gets transmitted to the AI system which investigates the information and regulates the traffic lights to ensure the best traffic flow. The company states that they helped people to get to their destinations 25% faster, cutting over 40% of the time spent at intersections, approximately from 30-40% of stops reducing the tyre wear [3]. Moreover, the system decreased the car idling by 20% which lessened the amount of CO2 being exhausted from cars [5]. The cost of implementing a system at a single intersection is valued at $20,000 [3]. The system is realized at 50 intersections and is waiting to be utilized with 150 more on the way [3]. The system has brought several benefits to Pittsburg decreasing not only the number of traffic jams but also contributing to the reduction of greenhouse emissions. The organization currently works to minimize the waiting time for pedestrians too as well as developing a mobile application to communicate with its users. Similar projects have already seen a launch in different countries around the world [3]. For instance, Toyota Mobility Foundation is developing an AI-Powered traffic management system, smart shuttle services, park schemes alongside Bangkok’s officials to solve the traffic flow on Rama IV Road the main expressway in Bangkok [4].

 

The rapidly growing amount of transport on public roads worldwide requires modern solutions to ensure smooth and uninterrupted traffic flow. Today the outdated traffic systems are not capable of managing the grown amount of traffic. Future IT software is promising to find a solution to this issue. The systems will bring several benefits to the traffic management and assist big cities governments and their citizens to enjoy better traffic flow and decreased amount of pollution which severely harms the quality of air.

 

Works Cited

 

  1. Baker, F. (2018, December 12). The technology that could end traffic jams. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20181212-can-artificial-intelligence-end-traffic-jams.
  2. Intelligent Video Traffic Monitoring for Self-Adaptive Traffic Signal Control System. (2019, March 22). Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://www.advantech.com/resources/case-study/intelligent-video-traffic-monitoring-for-self-adaptive-traffic-signal-control-system.
  3.  Snow, J. (2017, July 20). This AI traffic system in Pittsburgh has reduced travel time by 25%. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://www.smartcitiesdive.com/news/this-ai-traffic-system-in-pittsburgh-has-reduced-travel-time-by-25/447494/.
  4.  Stone, T. (2019, November 20). Toyota Mobility Foundation supporting project to ease traffic congestion in Bangkok. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://www.traffictechnologytoday.com/news/congestion-reduction/toyota-mobility-foundation-supporting-project-to-ease-traffic-congestion-in-bangkok.html.
  5.  Surtrac Smart Traffic Signals: Adaptive Traffic Control System. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://www.rapidflowtech.com/.

 

Unclear future of transportation

Reading Time: 3 minutes

The trend of automakers introducing electric vehicles is going viral at the moment. It is believed that car manufacturers are planning to invest approximately up to $90 billion in the development of EVs [6]. The main reasons why people go “electric” is because they think electric cars are 100% environmentally-friendly, cheaper to maintain and refuel. Moreover, many countries are planning to ban the sales and manufacturing of new, gas-powered cars. India plans to ban new conventional cars by 2030, the UK by 2050 and France by 2040 [4]. However, are electric cars are the answer to fighting climate change? Are they 100% “clean” as most of the consumers think? Let’s find out.

 

Electric vehicles are seen as an eco-friendly solution for fighting global warming. Last year over 3 million electric autos were sold and this is figure predicted to rise in the future [2]. Although, EVs do not generate any pollution while being driven the way they are produced should not be forgotten. The batteries of electric cars are dependent on the following raw-materials: cobalt, lithium, aluminum, manganese and many more [5]. To extract these metals companies are using extensive amounts of clean water, which further promotes harm to the environment [2]. Besides, bringing the harm to the environment the extraction of the mentioned above metals is done in the third-world countries. There were several instances when the extraction included illegal child labor and non-compliance to the work safety regulations when operating with these bio-hazardous metals [2]. Moreover, these resources are scarce as well as oil and no safe way was found in recycling the lithium-ion batteries [3]. A recent investigation in China has shown that an average fossil-powered vehicle would result in 10.5 tonnes of CO2 emissions. On the other hand, single electric vehicle results in the 13 tonnes of CO2 emissions, including battery production [5]. However, of course, if we are talking about the long-term perspective, for example, 150,000 km of mileage electric cars would produce around 20% fewer emissions than the conventional car [5]. Alongside, with the battle between electric cars and conventional ones, there has been a player that hasn’t still received wide recognition, them being hydrogen-powered or fuel-cell vehicles. These cars use hydrogen gas to generate electricity and convert it into movement. These cars are 100% emission-free releasing only pure water from their exhaust pipe [1]. However, as with electric cars, hydrogen-fueled autos cannot find a clean development solution, as today the technology depends on fossil fuels to produce the wanted fuel cell [1].

Summing up, the future of transportation is pretty vague at the moment. Although, to some extent electric cars allow us to reduce the amount of CO2 produced it does not resolve the problem completely. As of today, we cannot find a 100% pure-clean way to the CO2 issue. Currently, it can be said that the best way to reduce the number of greenhouse gases escaping to the atmosphere is by taking public transport or car-sharing [7]. Although sometimes these ways of transportation do not seem like the best options to take, I strongly believe that technology will help us to discover a fully eco-friendly way of commuting in the near upcoming future.

 

 

Work Cited

  1. Baxter, E. (2011, April 25). 10 Possible Transportation Pollution Solutions. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/10-transportation-pollution-solutions1.htm.
  2. Broom, D. (2019, March 27). The dirty secret of electric vehicles. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/03/the-dirty-secret-of-electric-vehicles/.
  3. Brueckner, M. (2018, April 17). Not so fast: why the electric vehicle revolution will bring problems of its own. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://theconversation.com/not-so-fast-why-the-electric-vehicle-revolution-will-bring-problems-of-its-own-94980.
  4. Coren, M. J. (2018, August 7). Nine countries say they’ll ban internal combustion engines. So far, it’s just words. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://qz.com/1341155/nine-countries-say-they-will-ban-internal-combustion-engines-none-have-a-law-to-do-so/.
  5. Hasan, A., & Chapman, R. B. (2019, October 15). Climate explained: the environmental footprint of electric versus fossil cars. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://theconversation.com/climate-explained-the-environmental-footprint-of-electric-versus-fossil-cars-124762.
  6. Lienert, P. (2018, January 15). Global carmakers to invest at least $90 billion in electric vehicles. Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-autoshow-detroit-electric/global-carmakers-to-invest-at-least-90-billion-in-electric-vehicles-idUSKBN1F42NW.
  7. Transport emissions. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2019, from https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport_en.

 

 

Smart Homes: Comfort or Inevitable Intrusion?

Reading Time: 4 minutes

 

 

Internet of Things (IoT) has completely changed the way of conducting business. IoT help benefit businesses in many ways: it improves efficiency, provides real-time data about current supply levels, reduces costs and helps to identify new market opportunities for firm’s growth [1]. The development of IoT did not stop there and today we can see that it is being implemented into our daily lives. New products like:  smart energy consumption monitors, smart speakers, smart vents, sport tracking systems that give you regular updates about your health status and many more are being introduced and they are meant to make our lives more comfortable and less-stressed [4]. It is predicted that the usage of IoT will increase by three times from 2018 to 2023 and result in creation of 43 billion new devices being implemented [2]. This article will mainly focus on the Smart Home systems their benefits and downsides to their users.

 

Smart Homes are not a thing of past anymore, in the US these software have already attracted 134 million users which is a 34% increase over a previous year [10]. Moreover, the worldwide market for smart home systems is projected to reach a mark of $53 billion in value by 2022 [9]. Smart Home is referred to the collection of Information Systems at your house, they include smart thermostats, locks, plugs, doorbells, lights and etc [5]. Moreover, a future user can customize his house by selecting only the necessary systems at his house without overpaying [5]. These tools are able to monitor person’s presence in a certain part of the house, therefore, they can manage the work of lights or heating more effectively it is estimated that the systems reduce the cost of the utilities charges by 16% on the heating bills [3]. The system will always keep you up to date about its condition and will notify if any repair or maintenance is required. Surveillance cameras are also considered to be  “smart” implementations, by installing them you will get a picture of what is happening outside of your house as well as inside increasing your protection and awareness of the surroundings [8]. Many experts believe that these “techy” upgrades will increase the value of your home as a whole if you will consider to sell it in the future [5]. Although, these advanced home systems bring several improvements like flexibility and other fringe benefits there are also downsides of using them.

 

To begin with, the tech-driven systems are harder to install and they are more expensive over the regular devices [5]. Secondly, the Smart hardware is reliant on a stable internet connection, if  you will experience a power cut most of the systems will be uncontrollable and you will not be able to use them until the devices are back online [5]. Moreover, the maintenance of these high-end systems require highly-skilled professionals who will be able to diagnose the issue correctly and immediately [5]. Although, technology can improve some areas of your security, a lot of users in the USA were complaining about their devices being hacked. The home systems like Google Home or Amazon Alexa have already been sued for leaking private conversations of their owners, so privacy is also under a risk of suffering after the installation of the Smart Home appliances [11]. Lastly, as the providers remove some of the flaws of their systems with every new update, users must take action as well. For instance, customers should keep their devices up-to-date by downloading every new version that the developer releases, create strong and change their passwords frequently [7].

 

Internet of Things provided several benefits in the business world and allowed organization to interconnect with each other and improve their efficiency. In today’s reality IoT is becoming an essential part in person’s daily activities. Smart Homes is a great example of how technology impacts our personal lives. Smart Home systems became popular not a long time ago. With their rapid usage growth they have both advantages and disadvantages. They assist their users in managing house-activities, saving funds on the utility bills and provide greater flexibility. However, the software are also highly-reliant on internet connection, has a high cost and is vulnerable to hacking. Although, companies are constantly improving the security of their products, customers should also take steps to prevent virtual intrusions by creating strong passwords and keeping the software updated [6]. In the end, Smart Home systems are a great long-term perspective in saving money on utility bills and increasing the value of your house.

 

Works Cited

 

  1. Baby, S. (n.d.). 6 Ways Businesses Can Take Advantage of IoT. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://vmokshagroup.com/blog/6-ways-businesses-can-take-advantage-of-iot/.
  2. Dahlqvist, F., Patel, M., Rajko, A., & Shulman, J. (2019, July). Growing opportunities in the Internet of Things. Retrieved November 8, 2019, from https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/private-equity-and-principal-investors/our-insights/growing-opportunities-in-the-internet-of-things.
  3. Doyle, B. (2019, May 30). The Ultimate Smart Home: 5 Devices That Save Money. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://magazine.realtor/technology/feature/article/2019/05/the-ultimate-smart-home-5-devices-that-save-money.
  4. Harvey , C. (2016, July 25). 75 Top IoT Devices. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://www.datamation.com/mobile-wireless/75-top-iot-devices-1.html.
  5. How Do Smart Homes Work?Advantages and Disadvantages of Smart Homes. (2018, November 14). Retrieved November 7, 2019, from  https://pvsbuilders.com/advantages-and-disadvantages-smart-homes/.
  6. Hu, J. C. (2018, December 18). How one lightbulb could allow hackers to burgle your home. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://qz.com/1493748/how-one-lightbulb-could-allow-hackers-to-burgle-your-home/.
  7. Kari, P. (2018, July 7). 7 ways to keep your smart home from being hacked. Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://www.marketwatch.com/story/7-ways-to-keep-your-smart-home-from-being-hacked-2016-10-17.
  8. SafeWise Team. (2018, October 12). What are the benefits of home automation? Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://www.safewise.com/faq/home-automation/home-automation-benefits/.
  9. Shanhong Liu, S. (2019, August 9). Global smart home market size 2016-2022. Retrieved November 8, 2019, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/682204/global-smart-home-market-size/.
  10. Smart Home – worldwide: Statista Market Forecast. (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://www.statista.com/outlook/279/100/smart-home/worldwide#market-marketDriver.
  11. Your smart home devices are easy to hack – here’s how to stay secure. (2019, September 17). Retrieved November 7, 2019, from https://7news.com.au/the-daily-edition/smart-home-security-the-devices-that-are-vulnerable-to-hacking-and-how-to-stay-secure-c-457339.

 

 

 

Computer Vision as an Assistant in Food Production And Its Management

Reading Time: 3 minutes

Food waste became a massive ethical and ecological issue worldwide. While some developing countries are fighting with malnutrition and hunger, developed nations are wasting an enormous amount of meals. It is estimated that approximately 1.3 billion tons of food is ending up unused annually [2]. For instance, 800 million people are starving worldwide [5]. Correct use of food resources could keep every person in the world well-fed [5]. Moreover, food waste also brings severe damage to the country’s resources it is believed that food waste accounts for USD 2.6 trillion yearly [2]. Among the financial loses food waste is a massive producer of greenhouse gases tracing only China and the USA in CO2 emissions [6]. Misuse of nutrition products became a huge problem with globalization when international trade developed and nations started sending more and more foods to each other [2]. The main reasons for food waste are: over plantation by producers, poor transportation, worn-out equipment in developing nations and many others [2]. However, technology, specifically Artificial Intelligence might help the world to improve food management to reduce the number of foods lost.

A start-up company from the United Kingdom named Winnow came up with an AI-powered waste bin that uses smart scales at the bottom and a touchscreen installed above it where you choose which products you have thrown-out [4]. The system is being used by some restaurants, which believe that they will be able to calculate the approximate amount of food they need in their operations, thus, improving food-management and significantly reducing storage costs. A total of 75 devices have already managed to cut 39,000 tonnes of greenhouses and save 30 million dollars to its users [1]. Ikea is one of the early adopters of this technology and the company is seeking to reduce its food losses by 50% [4]. Moreover, Artificial Intelligence was also introduced as an assistant in harvesting and growing crops. Several software systems like remote sensors, satellites, drones, etc. Provide farmers with valuable information about their harvest, for example, when the product is ready to be collected, real-time weather information, amount of fertilizers needed, etc [3]. All of this new software will allow farmers to experience fewer crop-losses and provide their customers with better quality products. Computer assistance can result in up to $127 billion in revenues by 2030 [3].

Food waste became a global problem in the past decades. With constantly rising population worldwide it is predicted that insufficient food use can rise by 60-70% by 2050 [7]. However, with the development of new computer systems and Artificial Intelligence, we will be able to reduce food waste by carefully analyzing how much food is needed and how to grow it more effectively, as well as, minimizing the possibility of poor harvests seasons. Moreover, the new systems will also help in cutting the amount of CO2 greenhouse gases being escaped to the atmosphere. Reduction of costs and expenses that arose from food waste will allow countries to allocate their resources more efficiently and spend more of their budgets towards the nation’s growth and development in the future.

 

 

 

Works Cited

1. Chapman, B. (2019, March 22). ‘World’s first’ AI bin launched to tackle food waste by restaurants. Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/ai-bin-launched-food-waste-restaurants-winnow-vision-a8835736.html.

2. Depta, L. (2018, September). Global Food Waste and its Environmental Impact: Green Living. Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://en.reset.org/knowledge/global-food-waste-and-its-environmental-impact-09122018.

3. Magnin, C. (2019, March 27). How AI can unlock a $127B opportunity by reducing food waste. Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/sustainability/our-insights/sustainability-blog/how-ai-can-unlock-a-127b-opportunity-by-reducing-food-waste.

4. Sawers, P. (2019, March 21). Winnow uses computer vision to help commercial kitchens cut food waste. Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://venturebeat.com/2019/03/21/winnow-uses-computer-vision-to-help-commercial-kitchens-cut-food-waste/.

5. The problem of food waste. (n.d.). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://olioex.com/food-waste/the-problem-of-food-waste/.

6. Waqavonovnono. (2019, September 19). Why is Food Waste a Global Issue? food wastes environmental impact. Retrieved October 27, 2019, from  https://www.trvst.world/inspiration/why-is-food-waste-a-global-issue/.

7. 10 food waste facts you need to know. (n.d.). Retrieved October 27, 2019, from https://olioex.com/food-waste/food-waste-facts/.

AI As Danger To Public Road Safety

Reading Time: 4 minutes

Impact of Technology on Driving

 

Prepared by: Artem Beregovskykh

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In the past 20 years, technology had a massive impact not only on the business market segments but also on our day-to-day life and the automotive industry is not the exception. With the increased use of technologies and its implementation in the new cars, they became safer, more economical, less polluting and more “independent” than they have ever been. On the other side, drivers became way too reliant on the new systems and in some cases that leads to deadly accidents. This report will focus on the impact of new systems implemented in cars and how they benefit and deteriorate the way we transport ourselves.

 

Automakers are investing the majority of their budgets on improving the safety of their new car models [3]. Several new systems were introduced to reduce the possibility of getting into an accident, let’s look at some of them in a more detailed way. Firstly, the Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) approximately 50% of both head-on and rear-end collisions were prevented by this system. Furthermore, the auto manufacturers in North America have agreed that this feature will come as a standard option on new vehicles from 2022 [3]. Second, Blind-Spot warning systems help you changing lanes and avoiding hitting a car in the blind spot have reduced nearly 14% of side crashes [2]. The electronic stability control (ESC) helped to prevent nearly half of the severe accidents involving roll-overs [3]. Adaptive Headlights are turning with your cars wheels allowing you to see what is in front of your car when you are entering a turn and avoiding an obstacle at the curve if it is present [1]. Although, the governments around the world are stiffening the regulations on safety features of new cars a lot of people worldwide are still dying in major crashes.

 

As new cars are becoming more technologically-advanced we expect them to be safer. However, in the USA there was a 50% increase in car accidents from 2015 to 2016 involving deaths and fatalities, which was the biggest annual increase in 50 years [4]. Also, from 2005 to 2008 the rise of telephone usage contributed to the growing amount of car accidents by 28% [9]. In the USA in 2017 texting and driving included 14% of fatal crashes [7]. Another way automakers are trying making public roads safer, is by developing and introducing self-driving systems. On the automotive market, Tesla is seen as the most tech-driven company but there were a lot of complaints from the drivers when Tesla cars were very close to hitting an obstacle when operating under the autopilot if the driver was not strictly following its manoeuvres [6]. However, there were also tragic instances when Teslas were involved in deadly car accidents when the autopilot was turned on. In 2019 Model  Tesla went under a truck resulting in the death of a driver. In the same year, the most expensive model in Tesla’s lineup Model X went into a barrier, caught on fire killing the driver [8]. In the end, people become highly dependent on the new technologies in their cars that they lose the caution and control over the process that increases the possibility of dying or getting serious injuries in a car accident.

 

Although, new cars are safer and more efficient than the old ones there are a lot of things that must be done to prevent future collisions and deadly accidents. Moreover, today’s drivers must be constantly involved in the driving process and control the environment around them, this approach will help reduce most of the crashes. To sum up, I believe that all auto manufacturers  should engage in more deeper research and development of the new systems in cars to reduce the possibility of its failure to a minimum. However, in the near future, I do not believe that cars will be able to operate without the driver’s presence.

 

 

Works Cited

 

  1. Agarwal, H. (2018, March 20). How Does Technology Help To Reduce Car Accidents? CEOWORLD magazine. Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://ceoworld.biz/2018/03/20/how-does-technology-help-to-reduce-car-accidents/.
  2. Automated safety systems found to prevent car crashes. (2017, August 23). Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4815388/Studies-automated-safety-systems-preventing-car-crashes.html.
  3. Bubbers, M. (2017, October 17). Five vehicle safety technologies that can help you avoid a crash. Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-drive/culture/technology/five-vehicle-safety-technologies-that-can-help-you-avoid-a-crash/article36533631/.
  4. Coplan, & Crane. (2016, December 10). How Technology is Increasing Car Accident Risks. Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.coplancrane.com/posts/understanding-rising-car-accident-risks-caused-by-new-technology/.
  5. Feldman, J. (2018, November 14). It’s Time to Change Tactics in the Fight Against Distracted Driving. Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.legalexaminer.com/transportation/its-time-to-change-tactics-in-the-fight-against-distracted-driving/.
  6. Gibbs, S. (2015, October 21). What happens when Tesla’s AutoPilot goes wrong: owners post swerving videos. Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/oct/21/tesla-autopilot-goes-wrong-videos.
  7. Styles, M. (n.d.). 2019 Cell Phone Texting and Driving Accident Statistics. Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.after-car-accidents.com/texting-and-driving-accidents.html.
  8. Tesla Model 3: Autopilot engaged during fatal crash. (2019, May 17). Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-48308852.
  9. Wilson, F. A., & Stimpson, J. P. (2010, November). Trends in fatalities from distracted driving in the United States, 1999 to 2008. Retrieved October 19, 2019, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951952/.